Speaking of wine culture, Chinese people have a long history of drinking. No matter ancient or modern, whenever there is a major event, the Chinese must have wine on the table! As we all know, wine was used as a kind of medicine in early China. Later, the drug was soaked directly in the wine, forming a unique treatment. And medicinal wine has been effectively developed in every dynasty in our country.
In the Shang and Yin era, after the wine industry was widespread, the technology of medicinal wine was implemented. At that time, he had mastered the technology of Ququ brewing. For example, in Shangshu · Shouming Pian, there was a discussion of Shang Wang Wuding as if it is a wine cricket, Erwei Ququ. It is worth noting that there is a record of Bang Qi Jiu in the oracle bone text of Luo Zhenyus research (the preface of the Yinxu Book Deed). In contrast to the Han Dynasty Ban Gus Baihu Tongyi · Cao Ji, the kang sect, with the fragrance of herbs, Yujin together Brew into a cricket, this is a written record of the emergence of medicinal wine in the Shang Dynasty.
In the Zhou Dynasty, drinking was becoming more and more common. There were already officials specializing in winemaking, called wine is right, and the technology of winemaking has been perfected. Weekly Rites records six key tips for winemaking: indica rice must be prepared (raw materials must be selected), koji rice must be dried (fermentation must be limited), Zhan Chi must be clean (washing and steaming must be clean), and water spring must be fragrant (water quality must be Glycol), pottery must be good (cellars used for fermentation, porcelain crockery must be good), fire must be obtained (steaming and roasting should be done properly when brewing), all points to be noted about winemaking. During the Western Zhou Dynasty, there were better medical divisions and medical affairs systems. There were two sergeants in food and medicine, and Zhang and Wang Zhis Liushi, Liuyin, Liuyi … Among them, the food doctor is the doctor in charge of diet and nutrition. Six drinks, namely water, pulp, coriander (wine), cold, sauce, coriander. It can be seen that the Zhou Dynasty has included wine in medical care for management. Xu Shen of the Han Dynasty put forward more clearly in Shuo Wen Jie Zi: wine, so to cure diseases, Li Zhou has medicine wine. This shows that the use of medicinal wine in the Zhou Dynasty is indeed quite common.
The oldest medicinal wine brewing recipe in China, the book Health Prescription and Zhejiang Recipe (unearthed at Mawangdui in 1973) have written records. From the existing text of Yangshengfang, there are six recognizable medicinal liquor prescriptions.
Only one side of the medicinal wine brewed in Miscellaneous Healing Recipe, that is, Zhi (what is unknown) and lychee root are put into (an ancient cooking steamer) to make wine. Most of these materials are not complete. The more complete one is the second party of Zhenglizhong in Yangshengfang. The party includes the entire process of making medicinal wine, taking methods, and functions, etc. It is the earliest complete record of the process of brewing medicinal wine
During the pre-Qin period, the development of traditional Chinese medicine has reached a considerable level. The medical representative work of this period, the Yellow Emperors Internal Classics, has made a special discussion on the role of wine in medicine. In Su Wen · Yang Li Suo Lun, first of all, the production of cricket will be based on rice, cooking rice, rice, and rice, that is, using intact rice as raw material. Rice stalks are made from fuel.Since the ancient times, the saint made soup soup for the sake of the ears, thinking that they have prepared their ears … In the Middle Ages, the morals were slightly weakened, and the evil spirits came to the fore. It shows that the ancients attached great importance to the use of alcohol to treat diseases. Historical Records of Bian Xie Cang Gong Biography It is in the stomach and intestines, where wine and wine go also records the view that Bian Qiao believes that wine and wine can be used to treat gastrointestinal diseases.
In the Han Dynasty, with the development of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, medicinal wine gradually became a part of it. Its performance is greatly strengthened in the clinical application. Therefore, its efficacy has been further improved. Twenty-five medical records of the famous Western Chinese doctor Chun Yuyi. This is the earliest medical record that we have seen in China. It lists two medical records that used medicine and wine to cure the disease. One is the king of Jibei suffering from wind chest full disease. , Took the three stone medicinal wine with Chun Yuyi and was cured. The other is that there is a Wang beauty in Miaochuan who has a difficult labor, and Chun Yuyi cures it with alcohol and gives birth to a baby. Eastern Han Zhang Zhongjings Treatment of Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases recorded sixty-two kinds of winds for women, blood in the belly, stinging, red orchid wine owner. The function of red orchids is to promote blood circulation and blood circulation, and use wine decoction to further strengthen the efficacy of the medicine, so that qi and blood can be unblocked, but the abdominal pain stops. In addition, Guabai Baibai Liquor Soup is also a dosage form of medicinal wine. It can be used to lighten the air and lead the medicine to go up to achieve the purpose of dispersing phlegm and removing phlegm by drinking to treat chest paralysis. As for the way in which he recorded the use of wine decoctions or servings, it is even more common.
The period of the Sui and Tang Dynasties was a period of widespread use of medicinal wine. The most abundant documented Thousands of Gold Recipes by Sun Siyi, with more than 80 medicinal wine prescriptions, involved supplementing and strengthening, internal, external, and gynecological aspects. In the section entitled Qianjin Yaofang · Wind Poisonous Athlete, there are 16 wine parties in total and 20 wine parties in Qianjin Yifang · Zhujiu, which is the earliest medicine in China. Thematic review.
In addition, Qian Jin Fang has a certain understanding of the toxic and side effects of alcohol and liquor. It is considered that alcohol is very hot, there is nothing to add, long-term drinking, and incomprehensible, it makes the three burns hot and the internal organs dry. There is no thirst. Therefore, in response to the various symptoms caused by alcoholism at the time, many corresponding anti-alcoholic prescriptions were developed, such as the prescription for drinking headache, the prescription for drinking poisoning, the prescription for drunken drunkness, and so on.
During the Song and Yuan dynasties, due to the development of science and technology, the wine industry also developed. Zhu Yizhong wrote the Book of Wine, also known as the Beijing Wine Book, during the Zhenghe period. Monograph on making and brewing. The first volume of the book is about wine, the middle volume is about music, and the second volume is about brewing methods. It can be seen that there were new advances in the processing and operation of raw materials for making koji at that time. The section on boiled wine talked about the method of heating and sterilizing to store liquor, which was hundreds of years earlier than Europe, and it was the first of its kind in China.
At this time, due to the invention of engraving printing and the governments emphasis on medical cause, the clinical and theoretical development of TCM was developed at that time. Therefore, the efficacy of medicinal wine has gradually risen from clinical to theoretical. For example, Taiping Shenghui Fang, Prescription of Medicinal Liquor states that wine drinker, Gu Zhizhi, and nourishing vitality, but the fierce nature, the power is very flexible, can declare the stomach and intestines, and guide the medicine. According to Record, Governing Law, and Soup, Evil wounds are shallow and deep, and the attack of medicine is serious. From the beginning of the disease, the soup liquid should be used to treat the slightest. The disease is long, but the attack is very bad. There are physical frights, the meridian is unreasonable, and the disease is born to the benevolent. The wine is treated with peony, which shows that the evil is deep, the meridians are stagnant, and the non-peony emits evil spirits. It is very hot, and the medicine potential is established, so the patient is known as blood deficiency and qi stagnation, Chen Han is cold, not withered, paralysis and paralysis, etc., should be taken regularly, both take the power of its gradual stains, and take ancient medicine, mostly drinkers , Fei Xuantong blood, it is also Yangyang. The scope of treatment of medicinal wine is also relatively concentrated, and it is developing towards health care and health, such as 22 ways to soak all winds and 14 kinds of medicines to cure waist and foot pain.
In the special prescriptions of medicinal wine, there are more health and longevity, beauty and health care prescriptions. At that time, the practice of making medicinal materials with medicinal materials had begun to prevail. Thirteen kinds of medicinal materials were recorded in the book called Beishan Jiu Jing alone. Such as Xianggui Qu, with wood incense, Guangui, windproof, almonds and other drugs. Yaoquan Qu is used with windbreak, white aconite, betel nut, pepper, sweet-scented osmanthus, clove, ginseng, Tiannanxing, Poria, fragrant white lotus root, chuanxiong, nutmeg and other drugs. It is considered that Dongyang Liquor is the best “medicine used in making medicines” for making medicinal wine. Its wine has been well-known since ancient times. Its fragrance is far-reaching, its color is golden, and it is drunk to drink. It is more important than other waters, but it is not true of the neighboring cities. Li Shizhen explained: Dongyang Liquor is Jinhua Liquor, and Gu Lanling is also. Li Taibais poem says: Lanling Fine Wine Tulip is this.
With the continuous development and improvement of wine making technology, some medicinal wines not only have the advantages of strengthening health and treating diseases, but also have a positive taste, becoming popular and famous wines, and becoming palace royal wines. The capital was built in Beijing during the Yuan Dynasty and was the most prosperous capital city in the world at that time. The flow of businessmen and tourists from all over the country and from Eurasian countries, and the collection of famous wines at home and abroad have become the characteristics of the court of the Yuan Dynasty. Chinese wolfberry wine and rehmannia wine; antler wine and lamb wine from the north and the south of the desert. Other wines that people brew and drink for themselves, such as the pepper and cypress wine of the first month, the dragon boat wine, the osmanthus wine of the Mid-Autumn Festival, and the chrysanthemum wine of Chongyang, have become the traditional festival wines, many of which are medicated wines.
In the early years of the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, there were as many wines as Beijing masters. At that time, there was a variety of medicinal wines that were shochu to be steamed for medicinal hotels. They were made with flowers and fruits. Mostly known as dew, such as rose dew, Yinchen dew, hawthorn dew, Wujiapi, lotus white, etc. Many of these medicinal liquors have the function of protecting the yuan and solidifying their health and extending their life, so they are mostly scholars. The child is addicted to drinking. The Qing Dynasty Yanjing Zayong praised it as Chang Lianyao connected to the short wall, the Forbidden Cangzhou lined up the hatchback, urged the four oclock to make wine, and the bamboo scent was blown on the seventh floor. Shochu was introduced into China from Persia and Arabia earlier, perhaps earlier. At that time it was named Ajijijiu, and Ming Dynasty was also called Huojiu, and it was gradually used to make medicinal liquor. Shochu is steamed medicinal liquor appeared in large numbers, indicating that the process of using liquor as a solvent in the Qing Dynasty has gradually become popular. At that time, there were a certain number of medicinal wines in the Qing Dynasty fine wines, such as Yehezhi, which was one of the great medicinal wines of the Qing Palace. Yehe branches are the branches of Acacia. In addition to the branches of Acacia, there are cypress branches, locust branches, mulberry branches, pomegranate branches, glutinous rice, black beans, and koji, which can cure stroke contracture.
During the period of the Republic of China, due to frequent wars, the development of medicinal wine was affected to the same extent as other industries, and little progress was made. After the founding of New China, the government attaches great importance to the development of Chinese medicine and Chinese medicine. Many Chinese medicine hospitals, Chinese medicine colleges and universities have been set up, and pharmaceutical factories have been set up to develop the Chinese medicine industry. The production of medicinal wine not only inherits the traditional production experience, but also absorbs modern science and technology, so that the production of medicinal wine tends to be standardized. In order to strengthen quality management, the regulation of medicinal wine is also listed as an important content of the national pharmacopoeia. The scientific research collaboration between the medicinal wine production unit and the medical department has ensured the reliability of clinical efficacy.