In the eyes of many elderly people, light diet is a magic weapon to stay away from chronic diseases such as the three highs. For a long time, they have adhered to the tenet of being vegetarian for longevity, and never even goofy. Fu Ping, a researcher at the Institute of Nutrition and Health of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and chairman of the Committee on Geriatric Nutrition and Food of the Chinese Academy of Gerontology pointed out that the diet of the elderly is not as light as possible, especially for the elderly. Too light may lead to nutrition. Poor, buried many hidden dangers to the body.
Beijing Evening News: Due to concerns about chronic diseases such as the three highs, more and more elderly people pay attention to light diet. Is this approach helpful to health?
For middle-aged and elderly people under the age of 65, consciously controlling diet, changing bad eating habits such as too salty, too oily, too sweet, and big fish and meat, and maintaining a light taste do indeed help prevent chronic diseases. Pay attention to degree, if you do not eat meat at all, rely too much on vegetarian food, do not dare to put oil in the cooking process, eat a small amount of food, a long time, the body will certainly not be able to eat.
Especially after the age of 75, various physical functions of the elderly have been declining year by year. Factors such as periodontitis, loose or missing teeth, decreased chewing and swallowing ability, and decreased digestion and absorption of the gastrointestinal tract will impede nutritional intake. The impact of wasting diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tumors is prone to malnutrition such as progressive weight loss. In this case, instead of insisting on an overly light diet, you should also encourage eating and provide timely nutritional supplements.
According to the Miniature Nutrition Assessment Profile (MNA-SF) commonly used at home and abroad, preliminary screening for malnutrition can be performed from six aspects. The first is whether there has been a significant involuntary weight loss in the last three months, that is, a weight loss that is not caused by active weight loss. It is recommended that the elderly observe the weight change in a timely manner, as with regular blood pressure measurement. It is best to wear as little clothing as possible in the morning on an empty stomach and measure after going to the toilet. If the drop exceeds 3 kg, it should be taken seriously.
Twenty-two is the BMI index, which is the number obtained by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square in height and meters. Once it is less than 19, it means risk. For the elderly, it is difficult to make up for it after a significant weight loss, so the safety line should be slightly higher than that of young people. Many studies have shown that maintaining a slightly fat state is better for the elderlys physical health.
The third is the eating status, to see if the elderly have appetite loss, indigestion, difficulty chewing and swallowing in the past three months. If the amount of food is more than one-third less than usual, malnutrition should also be considered; the fourth is the ability to move, such as Whether there is a significant decrease in pace; five is whether there is stress or acute disease in the past three months; and six is whether there are mental illnesses such as dementia or depression.
In addition, for bedridden elderly, calf circumference can also be measured. If it is less than 31 cm, there is a certain risk. At the same time, malnutrition is highly suspected if non-functional edema occurs in the ankle, leg, or even the entire body.
Wu Fuping: The so-called diet is too light, the most typical is the serious lack of oil and animal food intake, and these are likely to pose a threat to health.
According to the latest dietary guidelines for Chinese residents, a persons daily oil intake should be between 25 and 30 grams. The reason for the lower limit is that the oil is not as small as possible, but a certain amount should be guaranteed. If the oil intake is obviously lacking, then fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin D and vitamin E cannot be absorbed, resulting in decreased antioxidant capacity and the body is prone to aging.
In contrast, not eating animal food for a long time will bring more hidden dangers. The most direct manifestations are protein deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, and the former is often overlooked.
After 60 years of age, with the increase of age, the energy required by the human body is generally decreasing, but the demand for protein is increasing. Young people only need to reach 0.8 to 1 g per kilogram of body weight, but elderly people weigh 1.3 to 1.5 g per kilogram of body weight. In the case of sarcopenia, it may even reach 2.5 grams per kilogram of body weight. Once it is obviously lacking, a series of problems such as muscle atrophy, weakness, decreased resistance, and thinning of the skin can occur.
Many elderly people think that thinning the skin is just a normal manifestation of body aging and has little effect on health. In fact, this is closely related to the lack of protein in the body, and the skin is a barrier system of the human body. After thinning, it is equivalent to the doors and windows being broken, which is easy to attract thieves, harmful bacteria and viruses from the outside will invade, and the mucosal function will be worsened. The lungs and gastrointestinal tract are more fragile, and bedridden elderly are also prone to pressure ulcers.
In this case, if you can add about 100 grams of meat to your daily diet, the situation will be significantly improved. If you cant eat meat, you should also ensure the intake of egg milk and nuts. Eggs are an important source of high-quality protein. They are easy to process and digest, and steamed custard is suitable for the elderly. As for nuts, you can make walnuts, almonds, cashews, melon seeds, pine nuts, etc. into powder and add it to the porridge. It is fragrant and nutritious, and can be eaten by toothless old people.
Fu Ping: In our previous surveys, it was found that potassium deficiency is also quite common. According to the recommended amount, the potassium intake should reach 2000 mg per day, but actually only 900 to 1200 mg, and potassium deficiency can cause muscle Poor contractility, weakened heartbeat, and in severe cases, it can lead to hypokalemia and even paralysis.
Potassium deficiency is related to cooking habits. Some elderly people are afraid of bad teeth. They are accustomed to simmering the dishes first, but the simmering dishes take too long and become cooked. After cooking, they are removed and processed, which will cause a large amount of potassium loss. . This phenomenon is particularly prominent in nursing homes. In order to ensure that the softness and solidity of collective meals are consistent, and at the same time to achieve less oil, many vegetables will be cooked in advance, resulting in serious loss of potassium.
In order to improve, in addition to controlling the time of amaranth, you can also consciously increase high-potassium foods such as rhizomes, and use low sodium salts appropriately. Among them, potassium chloride used to replace sodium chloride can also help to supplement potassium. .
In addition, dietary fiber deficiency is also very common, mainly manifested by constipation, and if not effectively relieved, it may also become one of the factors that cause colon cancer. Because the elderly have limited chewing ability and reduced gastrointestinal motility, they are not suitable for foods with too much crude fiber. You can choose soluble dietary fiber-rich ingredients such as Tremella, Fungus, Shiitake, and Konjac. For the staple food, pay attention to the thickness and thickness of the food. To about a third.
The importance of diet to the health of the elderly must be taken seriously. No matter how expensive a health supplement is, it cannot replace three meals a day. Reasonable matching and ensuring food diversity is the key.
Generally speaking, it is necessary to follow the ten fists principle, that is, it is best to eat no more than one fist-sized meat, including fish, poultry, eggs, and meat; two fist-sized cereals, including rice noodles and coarse grains. , Miscellaneous beans and potatoes; two fists the size of soy and dairy products; no less than five fists the size of vegetables and fruits.
Some elderly people find it too troublesome to go out and buy vegetables every day. They cant wait to eat a radish or lettuce for two or three days. The diet structure is too simple. In fact, you can buy a variety of vegetables at once, cut into small pieces, quickly simmer with boiling water, remove them to dry, put them in the refrigerator for quick freezing, take out a few each time, and add some meat With stir-fry, this will not lose any nutrition, but also ensure rich ingredients and a balanced diet.
For those elderly people who live alone, it may be difficult to achieve these. It is necessary to vigorously develop socialized feeding. When the Technical Requirements for Eating Nutritional Meal in the Catering Industry is formally implemented, more companies will be encouraged to provide qualified elderly Elderly nutrition meal.
The specific plan depends on the actual situation of the elderly. As long as the elderly have the ability to eat actively, they should try to obtain it from the normal diet first, and supplement targeted foods rich in nutrients that the elderly lack. If the food source is not enough, then choose the appropriate nutrients.
If the elderly have difficulty chewing or swallowing, they can cook different foods such as vegetables and meat and then mash them separately, similar to making baby food. It is best to avoid tying everything together and try to stimulate the appetite of the elderly so that they eat with dignity. At the same time, the elderly should eat at least eight fists a day, that is, not less than 1200 grams except water and other liquids. If this is not possible, supplement the whole nutritious food that can be taken. On the basis of ensuring the daily diet, if there is still room for economics, you can also properly consider health products with the same medicinal and food products such as jujube, wolfberry, ginseng, and notoginseng, which will be icing on the cake.
For the elderly institutions, most of them rely on self-built kitchens and self-made chefs. The scale is limited, and it is difficult to meet the standard of elderly nutrition meals. Japans elderly care institutions basically rely on the central kitchen for unified distribution. According to the physical status of the elderly, they provide food of different hardness and shape to meet the nutritional needs of different elderly, ensure more professional, and large-scale production can greatly reduce costs and reduce Financial burden of the elderly.